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Klim Dyachkov
Klim Dyachkov

What Happens When You Buy A Put Option !FREE!


The majority of long option positions that have value prior to expiration are closed out by selling rather than exercising, since exercising an option will result in loss of time value, higher transaction costs, and additional margin requirements.




what happens when you buy a put option



Put options are a type of option that increases in value as a stock falls. A put allows the owner to lock in a predetermined price to sell a specific stock, while put sellers agree to buy the stock at that price. The appeal of puts is that they can appreciate quickly on a small move in the stock price, and that feature makes them a favorite for traders who are looking to make big gains quickly.


One option is called a contract, and each contract represents 100 shares of the underlying stock. Contracts are priced in terms of the value per share, rather than the total value of the contract. For instance, if the exchange prices an option at $1.50, then the cost to buy the contract is $150, or (100 shares * 1 contract * $1.50).


Put options are in the money when the stock price is below the strike price at expiration. The put owner may exercise the option, selling the stock at the strike price. Or the owner can sell the put option to another buyer prior to expiration at fair market value.


A put owner profits when the premium paid is lower than the difference between the strike price and stock price at option expiration. Imagine a trader purchased a put option for a premium of $0.80 with a strike price of $30 and the stock is $25 at expiration. The option is worth $5 and the trader has made a profit of $4.20.


If the stock finishes between $37 and $40 per share at expiration, the put option will have some value left on it, but the trader will lose money overall. And above $40 per share, the put expires worthless and the buyer loses the entire investment.


A put option allows investors to bet against the future of a company or index. More specifically, it gives the owner of an option contract the ability to sell at a specified price any time before a certain date. Put options are a great way to hedge against market declines, but they, like all investments, come with a bit of risk. For starters, you can lose not only what you invested, but also any chance for profits. A financial advisor could help you answer questions about put option investments and create a financial plan for your needs and goals.


Buying a put option gives you the right to sell a stock at a certain price (known as the strike price) any time before a certain date. This means you can require whoever sold you the put option (known as the writer) to pay you the strike price for the stock at any point before the time expires. However, you are under no obligation to do so.


You should also understand the risks associated with put option investing, though. Because options are derivatives, they receive their value through underlying security. This reliance on other securities makes options generally more complicated and risky than investors who focus on individual securities, like stocks and bonds.


What you can then do is buy a put option, which gives you the right to sell the 100 shares at a strike price of $100 at a time over the next three months. Since you own the shares, this is called a covered option.


If the three months pass without the shares falling below $100, you would let the option expire without exercising it. You would have spent $200 without gaining anything, but you will have insured yourself against losses.


To buy put options, you have to open an account with an options broker. The broker will then assign you a trading level. That limits the type of trade you can make based on your experience, financial resources and risk tolerance.


If the price of the optioned shares in the earlier example fell to $90, the buyer of an uncovered put option could still require the writer to purchase 100 shares for $100 each. First, he or she would purchase the shares for $90 each. After paying the $200 option premium, this put option would earn $800.


Options involve risk and are not suitable for all investors. Review the Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options brochure before you begin trading options. Options investors may lose the entire amount of their investment or more in a relatively short period of time.


American-style options allow the buyer of a contract to exercise at any time during the life of the contract, whereas European-style options can be exercised only during a specified period just prior to expiration. For an investor selling American-style options, one of the risks is that the investor may be called upon at any time during the contract's term to fulfill its obligations. That is, as long as a short options position remains open, the seller may be subject to "assignment" on any day equity markets are open.


An option assignment represents the seller's obligation to fulfill the terms of the contract by either selling or buying the underlying security at the exercise price. This obligation is triggered when the buyer of an option contract exercises their right to buy or sell the underlying security.


To ensure fairness in the distribution of American-style and European-style option assignments, the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC), which is the options industry clearing house, has an established process to randomly assign exercise notices to firms with an account that has a short option position. Once a firm receives an assignment, it then assigns this notice to one of its customers who has a short option contract of the same series. This short option contract is selected from a pool of such customers, either at random or by some other procedure specific to the brokerage firm.


While an option seller will always have some level of uncertainty, being assigned may be a somewhat predictable event. Only about 7% of options positions are typically exercised, but that does not imply that investors can expect to be assigned on only 7% of their short positions. Investors may have some, all or none of their short positions assigned.


And while the majority of American-style options exercises (and assignments) happen on or near the contract's expiration, a long options holder can exercise their right at any time, even if the underlying security is halted for trading. Someone may exercise their options early based upon a significant price movement in the underlying security or if shares become difficult to borrow as the result of a pending corporate action such as a buyout or takeover.


Note: European-style options can only be exercised during a specified period just prior to expiration. In U.S. markets, the majority of options on commodity and index futures are European-style, while options on stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETF) are American-style. So, while SPDR S&P 500, or SPY options, which are options tied to an ETF that tracks the S&P 500, are American-style options, S&P 500 Index options, or SPX options, which are tied to S&P 500 futures contracts, are European-style options.


An investor who is assigned on a short option position is required to meet the terms of the written option contract upon receiving notification of the assignment. In the case of a short equity call, the seller of the option must deliver stock at the strike price and in return receives cash. An investor who doesn't already own the shares will need to acquire and deliver shares in return for cash in the amount of the strike price, multiplied by 100, since each contract represents 100 shares. In the case of a short equity put, the seller of the option is required to purchase the stock at the strike price.


It is normal to see an account balance fluctuate after opening a short option position. Investors who have questions or concerns or who do not understand reported trade balances and assets valuations should contact their brokerage firm immediately for an explanation. Please keep in mind that short option positions can incur substantial risk in certain situations.


For example, say XYZ stock is trading at $40 and an investor sells 10 contracts for XYZ July 50 calls at $1.00, collecting a premium of $1,000, since each contract represents 100 shares ($1.00 premium x 10 contracts x 100 shares). Consider what happens if XYZ stock increases to $60, the call is exercised by the option holder and the investor is assigned. Should the investor not own the stock, they must now acquire and deliver 1,000 shares of XYZ at a price of $50 per share. Given the current stock price of $60, the investor's short stock position would result in an unrealized loss of $9,000 (a $10,000 loss from delivering shares $10 below current stock price minus the $1,000 premium collected earlier).


American-style option holders have the right to exercise their options position prior to expiration regardless of whether the options are in-, at- or out-of-the-money. Investors can be assigned if any market participant holding calls or puts of the same series submits an exercise notice to their brokerage firm. When one leg is assigned, subsequent action may be required, which could include closing or adjusting the remaining position to avoid potential capital or margin implications resulting from the assignment. These actions may not be attractive and may result in a loss or a less-than-ideal gain.


If an investor's short option is assigned, the investor will be required to perform in accordance with their obligation to purchase or deliver the underlying security, regardless of the overall risk of their position when taking into account other options that may be owned as part of the overall multi-leg strategy. If the investor owns an option that serves to limit the risk of the overall spread position, it is up to the investor to exercise that option or to take other action to limit risk.


Note: In either example, the short put position may be assigned prior to expiration at the discretion of the option holder. Investors can check with their brokerage firm regarding their option exercise procedures and cut-off times. 041b061a72


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