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Market Research Group

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William Mitchell
William Mitchell

Pile Up! Box By Box

Two Minion Pigs are collaborating to pile boxes onto each other. After a while, though, the bottom pig is out of boxes, so the other pig asks the pig to find more boxes and he decides to grab some boxes from the bottom of the pile to give to the top pig. A few boxes later, they notice the boxes floating. But the boxes collapse, ending the episode.

Pile Up! Box by Box


In June, the schoolhouse begins to fill with these real and imagined boxes that come in all sizes. They are the vessels for all we have experienced, learned, made, sung, acted, danced, run and cherished between September and June, and they begin to pile up in anticipation of the move to a new year.

For high power-aperture lidar sounding of wide atmospheric dynamic ranges, as in middle-upper atmospheric probing, photomultiplier tubes' (PMT) pulse pile-up effects and signal-induced noise (SIN) complicates the extraction of information from lidar return signal, especially from metal layers' fluorescence signal. Pursuit for sophisticated description of metal layers' characteristics at far range (80130km) with one PMT of high quantum efficiency (QE) and good SNR, contradicts the requirements for signals of wide linear dynamic range (i.e. from approximate 10(2) to 10(8) counts/s). In this article, Substantial improvements on experimental simulation of Lidar signals affected by PMT are reported to evaluate the PMTs' distortions in our High Power-Aperture Sodium LIDAR system. A new method for pile-up calibration is proposed by taking into account PMT and High Speed Data Acquisition Card as an Integrated Black-Box, as well as a new experimental method for identifying and removing SIN from the raw Lidar signals. Contradiction between the limited linear dynamic range of raw signal (5580km) and requirements for wider acceptable linearity has been effectively solved, without complicating the current lidar system. Validity of these methods was demonstrated by applying calibrated data to retrieve atmospheric parameters (i.e. atmospheric density, temperature and sodium absolutely number density), in comparison with measurements of TIMED satellite and atmosphere model. Good agreements are obtained between results derived from calibrated signal and reference measurements where differences of atmosphere density, temperature are less than 5% in the stratosphere and less than 10K from 30km to mesosphere, respectively. Additionally, approximate 30% changes are shown in sodium concentration at its peak value. By means of the proposed methods to revert the true signal independent of detectors, authors approach a new balance between maintaining the linearity of adequate signal (20-110km) and guaranteeing good SNR (i.e. 10(4):1 around 90km) without debasing QE, in one single detecting channel. For the first time, PMT in photon-counting mode is independently applied to subtract reliable information of atmospheric parameters with wide acceptable linearity over an altitude range from stratosphere up to lower thermosphere (20-110km). 041b061a72


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